Attention A T users. To access the menus on this page please perform the following steps. 1. Please switch auto forms mode to off. 2. Hit enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. To enter and activate the submenu links, hit the down arrow. You will now be able to tab or arrow up or down through the submenu options to access/activate the submenu links.

Viral Hepatitis


Quick Links

Veterans Crisis Line Badge
My healthevet badge
EBenefits Badge

Update of the Management and Treatment of Hepatitis C Viral Infection, 2012: References

for Health Care Providers


You are viewing outdated content. This information may no longer be accurate or relevant and is provided for research or recordkeeping purposes only.


  1. Alter MJ, Kruszon-Moran D, Nainan OV et al. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 556-62.
  2. Dominitz JA, Boyko EJ, Koepsell TD et al. Elevated prevalence of hepatitis C infection in users of United States veterans medical centers. Hepatology 2005; 41: 88-96.
  3. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration Office of Public Health and Environmental Hazards, Public Health Strategic Health Care Group. State of Care for Veterans with Chronic Hepatitis C 2010PDF icon
  4. Bruno S, Facciotto C. The natural course of HCV infection and the need for treatment. Ann Hepatol 2008; 7: 114-9.
  5. Ghany MG, Kleiner DE, Alter H et al. Progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 97-104.
  6. Davis GL, Alter MJ, El-Serag H et al. Aging of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons in the United States: a multiple cohort model of HCV prevalence and disease progression. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: 513-521.e1-6.
  7. Kanwal F, Hoang T, Kramer JR et al. Increasing prevalence of HCC and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 1182-1188.e1.
  8. Backus LI, Boothroyd DB, Phillips BR et al. A sustained virologic response reduces risk of all-cause mortality in patients with hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 509-516.e1.
  9. Morgan TR, Ghany MG, Kim HY et al. Outcome of sustained virological responders with histologically advanced chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2010; 52: 833-44.
  10. George SL, Bacon BR, Brunt EM et al. Clinical, virologic, histologic, and biochemical outcomes after successful HCV therapy: a 5-year follow-up of 150 patients. Hepatology 2009; 49: 729-38.
  11. Poordad F, McCone J Jr, Bacon BR et al. Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1195-206.
  12. Jacobson IM, McHutchison JG, Dusheiko G et al. Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 2405-16.
  13. Zeuzem S, Andreone P, Pol S e t al. Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection . N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 2417-28.
  14. Bacon BR, Gordon SC, Lawitz E et al. Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 1207-17.
  15. Pawlotsky JM. The results of Phase III clinical trials with telaprevir and boceprevir presented at the Liver Meeting 2010: a new standard of care for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection, but with issues still pending. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: 746-54.
  16. Pereira AA, Jacobson IM. New and experimental therapies for HCV. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6: 403-11.
  17. CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1998; 47: 1-39.
  18. Ghany MG, Strader DB, Thomas DL et al. Diagnosis, management, and treatment of hepatitis C: an update. Hepatology 2009; 49: 1335-74.
  19. Ghany MG, Nelson DR, Strader DB et al. An update on treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guidelines by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology 2011; 54: 1433-44.
  20. National Institutes of Health. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: management of hepatitis C: 2002-June 10-12, 2002. Hepatology 2002; 36: S3-S20.
  21. Monto A, Patel K, Bostrom A et al. Risks of a range of alcohol intake on hepatitis C-related fibrosis. Hepatology 2004; 39: 826-34.
  22. Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet 1997; 349: 825-32.
  23. Hourigan LF, Macdonald GA, Purdie D et al. Fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C correlates significantly with body mass index and steatosis. Hepatology 1999; 29: 1215-9.
  24. Dienstag JL. The role of liver biopsy in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2002; 36: S152-60.
  25. Rockey DC, Bissell DM. Noninvasive measures of liver fibrosis. Hepatology 2006; 43: S113-20.
  26. Degos F, Perez P, Roche B et al. Diagnostic accuracy of FibroScan and comparison to liver fibrosis biomarkers in chronic viral hepatitis: a multicenter prospective study (the FIBROSTIC study). J Hepatol 2010; 53: 1013-21.
  27. Sagir A, Erhardt A, Schmitt M et al. Transient elastography is unreliable for detection of cirrhosis in patients with acute liver damage. Hepatology 2008; 47: 592-5.
  28. Friedrich-Rust M, Ong MF, Martens S et al. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis: a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2008; 134: 960-74.
  29. The VA Hepatitis C Resource Center Program and National Hepatitis C Program Office VHA. Management of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders in Patients With Hepatitis C: A Reference for Hepatitis C Care Providers 2005, pp 1-36.
  30. Babor TF, Higgins-Biddle JC, Saunders JB et al. AUDIT-The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: Guidelines for Use in Primary Care. World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence: Geneva, Switzerland, 2001.
  31. Ho SB, Groessl E, Dollarhide A et al. Management of chronic hepatitis C in veterans: the potential of integrated care models. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 1810-23.
  32. Rebetol (Ribavirin; package insert). Schering Corporation: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2011.
  33. Copegus (Ribavirin; package insert). Genentech Inc: South San Francisco, CA, August 2011, February 2005.
  34. Victrelis (boceprevir; package insert). Schering Corporation: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2011.
  35. Incivek (telaprevir; package insert). Vertex Pharmaceuticals Inc: Cambridge, MA, 2011.
  36. Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson AJ et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature 2009; 461: 399-401.
  37. Tanaka Y, Nishida N, Sugiyama M et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 1105-9.
  38. Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature 2009; 461: 798-801.
  39. Kurosaki M, Sakamoto N, Iwasaki M et al. Sequences in the interferon sensitivity-determining region and core region of hepatitis C virus impact pretreatment prediction of response to PEG-interferon plus ribavirin: data mining analysis. J Med Virol 2011; 83: 445-52.
  40. Moghaddam A, Melum E, Reinton N et al. IL28B genetic variation and treatment response in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection. Hepatology 2011; 53: 746-54.
  41. Sakamoto N, Nakagawa M, Tanaka Y et al. Association of IL28B variants with response to pegylated-interferon alpha plus ribavirin combination therapy reveals intersubgenotypic differences between genotypes 2a and 2b. J Med Virol 2011; 83: 871-8.
  42. Mangia A, Thompson AJ, Santoro R et al. Limited use of interleukin 28B in the setting of response-guided treatment with detailed on-treatment virological monitoring. Hepatology 2011; 54: 772-80.
  43. Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 958-65.
  44. Fried MW, Shiff man ML, Reddy KR et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 975-82.
  45. Muir AJ, Bornstein JD, Killenberg PG. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in blacks and non-Hispanic whites. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2265-71.
  46. Jacobson IM, Brown RS Jr, Freilich B et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and weight-based or flat-dose ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients: a randomized trial. Hepatology 2007; 46: 971-81.
  47. Berg T, von Wagner M, Nasser S et al. Extended treatment duration for hepatitis C virus type 1: comparing 48 vs. 72 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 1086-97.
  48. Pearlman BL, Ehleben C, Saifee S. Treatment extension to 72 weeks of peginterferon and ribavirin in hepatitis C genotype 1-infected slow responders. Hepatology 2007; 46: 1688-94.
  49. Sherman KE, Flamm SL, Afdhal NH et al. Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 1014-24.
  50. Jensen DM, Marcellin P, Freilich B et al. Re-treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C who do not respond to peginterferon-alpha2b: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 528-40.
  51. Bacon BR, Shiff man ML, Mendes F e t al. Retreating chronic hepatitis C with daily interferon alfacon-1/ribavirin after nonresponse to pegylated interferon/ribavirin: DIRECT results. Hepatology 2009; 49: 1838-46.
  52. Yee HS, Currie SL, Tortorice K et al. Retreatment of hepatitis C with consensus interferon and ribavirin after nonresponse or relapse to pegylated interferon and ribavirin: a national VA clinical practice study. Dig Dis Sci 2011; 56: 2439-48.
  53. Pol S, Roberts S, Andreone P et al. Efficacy and safety of telaprevir-based regimens in cirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1 and prior peginterferon/ ribavirin treatment failure: subanalysis of the REALIZE phase III study. Hepatology 2011; 54: 374-375S.
  54. Vierling J, Flamm S, Gordon SC et al. Efficacy of boceprevir in prior null responders to peginterferon/ribavirin: the PROVIDE study. Hepatology 2011; 54: 796-797A.
  55. Forns X, Marcellin P, Ferenci P et al. On-treatment response-guided therapy with telaprevir Q8H or Q12H combined with peginterferon alfa-2A or peginterferon alfa-2B and ribavirin in treatment-naive genotype 1 hepatitis C (Study C208). J Hepatol 2010; 52: S26.
  56. Flamm S, Lawitz E, Jacobson I et al. High sustained virologic response (SVR) among genotype 1 previous non-responders and relapsers to peginterferon/ribavirin when re-treated with Boceprevir (BOC) plus peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S541-2.
  57. Peg-Intron (Peginterferon alfa-2b; package insert). Schering Corporation: Whitehouse Station, NJ, 2011.
  58. Pegasys (Peginterferon alfa-2a; package insert). Hoffman-La Roche Inc: Nutley, NJ, 2011.
  59. McHutchison JG, Manns MP, Muir AJ et al. Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1292-303.
  60. Hezode C, Forestier N, Dusheiko G et al. Telaprevir and peginterferon with or without ribavirin for chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1839-50.
  61. Sulkowski MS, Reddy R, Afdhal NH et al. Anemia had no effect on efficacy outcomes in treatment-naive patients who received telaprevir-based regimen in the ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE phase 3 studies. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S195.
  62. Sulkowski M, Poordad F, Manns MP et al. Anemia during treatment with peginterferon alfa-2B/ribavirin with or without boceprevir is associated with higher SVR rates: analysis of previously untreated and previous treatment-failure patients. Gastroenterology 2011; 140: S-941-2.
  63. Sulkowski MS, Shiff man ML, Afdhal NH et al. Hepatitis C virus treatment-related anemia is associated with higher sustained virologic response rate. Gastroenterology 2010; 139: 1602-11, 1611.e1.
  64. Epogen (Epoetin alfa; package insert). Amgen Inc: Thousand Oaks, CA, June 2011, February 2010.
  65. Aranesp (Darbepoetin alfa; package insert). Amgen Inc: Thousand Oaks, CA, June 2011, May 2010.
  66. Pawlotsky JM. Treatment failure and resistance with direct-acting antiviral drugs against hepatitis C virus. Hepatology 2011; 53: 1742-51.
  67. Kieffer TL, Sarrazin C, Miller JS et al. Telaprevir and pegylated interferon-alpha-2a inhibit wild-type and resistant genotype 1 hepatitis C virus replication in patients. Hepatology 2007; 46: 631-9.
  68. Sarrazin C, Kieff er TL, Bartels D et al. Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 1767-77.
  69. Barbotte L, Ahmed-Belkacem A, Chevaliez S et al. Characterization of V36C, a novel amino acid substitution conferring hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance to telaprevir, a potent peptidomimetic inhibitor of HCV protease. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54: 2681-3.
  70. McCown MF, Rajyaguru S, Kular S et al. GT-1a or GT-1b subtype-specific resistance profiles for hepatitis C virus inhibitors telaprevir and HCV-796. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009; 53: 2129-32.
  71. Ferenci P, Laferl H, Scherzer TM et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 24 weeks in hepatitis C type 1 and 4 patients with rapid virological response. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 451-8.
  72. Lindsay KL, Trepo C, Heintges T et al. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing pegylated interferon alfa-2b to interferon alfa-2b as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology 2001; 34: 395-403.
  73. Poynard T, Bedossa P, Chevallier M et al. A comparison of three interferon alfa-2b regimens for the long-term treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Multicenter Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995; 332: 1457-62.
  74. Grieve R, Roberts J, Wright M et al. Cost effectiveness of interferon alpha or peginterferon alpha with ribavirin for histologically mild chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2006; 55: 1332-8.
  75. Heathcote EJ, Shiffman ML, Cooksley WG et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1673-80.
  76. Hadziyannis SJ, Sette H Jr, Morgan TR et al. Peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin combination therapy in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized study of treatment duration and ribavirin dose. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 346-55.
  77. Pradat P, Tillmann HL, Sauleda S et al. Long-term follow-up of the hepatitis C HENCORE cohort: response to therapy and occurrence of liver-related complications. J Viral Hepat 2007; 14: 556-63.
  78. Bruno S, Stroffolini T, Colombo M et al. Sustained virological response to interferon-alpha is associated with improved outcome in HCV-related cirrhosis: a retrospective study. Hepatology 2007; 45: 579-87.
  79. Veldt BJ, Heathcote EJ, Wedemeyer H et al. Sustained virologic response and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 677-84.
  80. Jacobson IM, Brown RS Jr, McCone J et al. Impact of weight-based ribavirin with peginterferon alfa-2b in African Americans with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Hepatology 2007; 46: 982-90.
  81. Conjeevaram HS, Fried MW, Jeff ers LJ et al. Peginterferon and ribavirin treatment in African American and Caucasian American patients with hepatitis C genotype 1. Gastroenterology 2006; 131: 470-7.
  82. Jeffers LJ, Cassidy W, Howell CD et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kd) and ribavirin for black American patients with chronic HCV genotype 1. Hepatology 2004; 39: 1702-8.
  83. Sulkowski M, Dieterich D, Sherman K et al. Interim analysis of a phase 2a double-blind study of telaprevir in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. In: 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). Boston, MA, 2011.
  84. Sulkowski M, Pol S, Cooper C et al. Boceprevir plus peginterferon/ribavirin for the treatment of HCV/HIV co-infected patients: interim on-treatment results. In: 49th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Boston, MA, 2011.
  85. Garg V, van Heeswijk R, Lee JE et al. Effect of telaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Hepatology 2011; 54: 20-7.
  86. Terrault N. Phase II randomised, partially-blind, parallel group study of oral danoprevir (RG7227) with PEGIFN-2A (PEGASYSÂ) plus ribavirin in treatment-naive genotype 1 patients with CHC: results of a planned week 12 interim analysis of the ATLAS Study. Hepatology 2010; 52: 335A.
  87. Fried M, Buti M, Dore GJ et al. Efficacy and safety of TMC435 in combination with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in treatment-naive genotype-1 HCV patients: 24-week interim results from the PILLAR study. Hepatology 2010; 52: 403A-4A.
  88. Zeuzem S, Foster GR, Fried MW et al. The ASPIRE trial: TMC435 in treatment-experienced patients with genotype-1 HCV infection who have failed previous pegIFN/RBV treatment. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S546.
  89. Sulkowski MS, Ceasu E, Asselah T et al. SILEN-C1: Sustained virologic response (SVR) and safety of BI201335 combined with peginterferon alfa-2A and ribavirin (P/R) in treatment-naive patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV infection. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S27.
  90. Flisiak R, Pawlotsky JM, Crabbe R et al. Once daily alisporivir (DEB025) plus pegINFalfaA2A/ribavirin results in superior sustained virologic response (SVR24) in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 treatment naive patients. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S2.
  91. Gane EJ, Roberts SK, Stedman CA et al. Oral combination therapy with a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor (RG7128) and danoprevir for chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection (INFORM-1): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 1467-75.
  92. Lawitz E, Rodriguez-Torres M, Denning J et al. Once daily dual-nucleotide combination of PSI-938 and PSI-7977 provides 94% HCVRNA <LOD at day 14: first purine/pyrimidine clinical combination data (the Nuclear study). J Hepatol 2011; 54: S543.
  93. Lok A, Gardiner D, Lawitz E et al. Quadruple therapy with BMS-790052, BMS-650032 and peg-INF/RBV for 24 weeks results in 100% SVR12 in HCV genotype 1 null responders. J Hepatol 2011; 54: S536.